Friday, November 9, 2018

High-Impact Instructional Strategies To Use Right Now

Engagement versus effectiveness.

This is a conversation I have been having with educators and leaders all over the country for a while now. Just because we see students engaged in learning might not mean actual effective learning is taking place. When we throw technology into the mix it can appear that students are learning a great deal because they are creating a podcast or making a video or using some game to review for a quiz but are these instructional methods actually effective?

What are high-impact, effective instructional strategies?

More importantly, what does the research say?

In the book Visible Learning author and education researcher John Hattie explains the methodology behind his meta-meta studies of over 250 different types of factors that impact student achievement and learning. Everything from class size to poverty to summer vacation to various instructional methods are examined at a very large scale to determine how they impact how students learn and grow. These are then ranked according to their Effect Size.

Effect Size is a useful number to use when comparing different measurements from different studies. Hattie concludes that an effect size of 0.40 is the "hinge point" or where anything above can accelerate student achievement and be quite effective and anything below isn't as effective.

Using these effect sizes as a guide we can find the most high-impact instructional strategies that are research proven to work and help students grow. Below are the six I believe to be the most impactful and easiest to implement. Some you may already be doing (like Problem-Based Learning) or others you may not have ever thought about that could be substantial for student growth (like micro-teaching).

Collective Teacher Efficacy-Effect Size: 1.57-With the highest return on student growth, collective teacher efficacy is one of the easiest to implement. This is the collective believe, by all educators in a school, that students can achieve, despite any external factors and they will stop at nothing to make it happen. In an environment where Collective Teacher Efficacy is in place everyone from all teachers, to leadership create a culture where there is that strong belief all students, no matter their ability can grow and learn. Keep in mind, this does not mean every student will be proficient on some meaningless year-long summative assessment because for most students that will not be the best measure of what they know. It means that the entire staff will work tirelessly to ensure all students can and will do their best.

Micro-Teaching/Reflection-Effect Size: 0.88-This involves teachers teaching smaller lessons that are recorded and viewed later as part of a PLC or other team meeting. For many educators critiquing themselves on video will be challenge enough. That coupled with the reflection with peers will be even tougher. However, the benefits has been research shown time and time again. Educators who reflect on their teaching, both as an individual and with peers improve over the long-haul. And that is key. This simply isn't a one time event. It is a part of continuous practice. The technical aspects aren't as important as the collective reflection with other educators after. Viewing the recordings as an individual and as a group has shown drastic improvements in student learning.

Classroom Discussion-Effect Size 0.82-Classroom discussion isn't the teacher standing in the front of the room asking a bunch of questions and students giving one or two word answers. The teacher starts by giving a guiding question and student stake over from there. Ultimately, students are driving the discussion through their conversation, articulating what they know, how they know it and what questions still remain. It is an opportunity to learn with and from peers in a safe and inviting environment. Research shows that the more often classroom discussion is used in on-going learning, the more students retain and grow.

Formative Assessment-Effect Size: 0.72-Understanding where students are in their learning is crucial for educators to understand the effectiveness of their teaching and for students to be able to articulate what they know, but more importantly, how they know what they know. The use of formative assessment has 2 components. First, it tells the student where they are in their understanding. It's short and quick questions that are asked during a lesson that give students an opportunity to gage their own understanding. Second, and perhaps more importantly, for the teacher formative assessment gives valuable feedback during the course of a lesson or learning. Changes can be made to adapt to where students are in their learning. Why wait until the chapter or unit test when you can make changes in the moment? Formative assessments aren't graded and they are done consistently, during every class and lesson.

Feedback-Effect Size: 0.70-Closely related to formative assessment, feedback is the process of the teacher and the student talking about their learning and understanding. The most powerful feedback is given from the student to the teacher. Feedback can come in many forms and research shows us the most powerful is direct, 1-on-1 conversation. The teacher and the student sit down to talk about a part of their learning, and overall assessment of their understanding but more importantly the student gives feedback to the teacher on their own progress and the techniques used by the teacher. It may seem like a challenge to meet with every student for a meaningful conversation, especially when classes and teaching loads are getting larger. However, a consistent 5-7 min conversation once a week can help students and the teacher tremendously.

Problem-Based Learning-Effect Size: 0.68-Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is the instructional process by which students are given a real-world, authentic based problem with no clear answer. Students work individually or in groups to research and propose solutions that are shared locally and globally. In order for this type of instruction to be effective, students must be working towards solutions to authentic problems. Students have to be a part of the "problem shaping" conversation. And there has to be an understanding that there may not be one type of solution. Rather there are many different types of approaches and solutions to the same problem. We want students to embrace the struggle. Solutions should be shared with a global audience either through a blog, video or presenting their results to their community.

There are many more instructional strategies that Hattie has identified that can have a large impact on not only our ability to be more effective educators but also on our ability for students to learn and grow more. Learn more about Effect Size and the impact this research can have on your classroom and school.

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